May 11, 2021

Tuition free education in Italy | Tamil student

 Why you have chosen Italy?

Tuition free education
Tuition free education in Italy


Often asked question, mostly people prefer France,Us,uk  for higher studies

But italy has some of the top ranking universities(Not top hundred***) and scholarships are provided, tuition free as well

The main reason is that Italy has research and top ranking universities in my field*

Which course u have opted and why are you studying in the paduva university?

I am pursuing my masters in food and wine

because I did my bachelors in food and technology

And i was searching for my masters course related to my bachelors and i found a food and wine course in university of paduva, which is one of the top ranking universities. So i ended up with university of paduva

How much do you have to spend for your 2 year course?

When comes to expense,  my budget was 3 lacs

I had to pay my admission fee, visa processing fee and then scholarship processing 

Here they provide the scholarship amount in the month of december, till then you have to take care of your expenditure on your own

So in total it would be around 3 lacs

In case of self financing(without scholarship), monthly 30,000 rupees would be needed and in total for 2 years it would be approximately around 7 lacs

But they are providing needs-based, which is helping me to take care of my expenses.

Could you give more details about the regional scholarship?

The regional scholarship is not merit based

But there are also merit based scholarships and regional based scholarships

the regional based scholarships will be useful to engineering students

and regional scholarships is  based on your family income in India

Mostly it's quite easy to get.

How you are managing food, have you become a complete Italian in terms of cuisine?

Nope , food would be provided in the canteen(Mensa) even rice is available. 

But in case you want to cook your own food, self-cooking kitchens are available for students in their residency 

and we can get maximum indian ingredients as well. 

We have to manage ourselves.

OK

How friendly are students? Mostly indian parents would fear about racism, How are the Indian students community and also how do Italians treat you?

Italy is not some third world country,

Here people are so friendly and show tremendous hospitality

There are lots of clubs available for indian students and international students as well.

 Students help each other in case of emergencies and problems

IMO, racism doesn't exist here.

How is your academic life? What difference do you observe between Indian and Italian education ?

Education is so much better when compared to India, you can't find any fault in the education and lots of research facilities are available. Your masters course would be 10 times of your bachelors course

Are you doing any part time jobs?

 MS students in the US would prefer to do part time jobs?

Are there opportunities for part time jobs?

Ofcourse, there are lots of opportunities for part time jobs

Most people don't make use of it

Currently due to covid situation, there are not many opportunities but you can get part time jobs for sure if you know Italian language.

How covid impacted your studies? U had reached italy during covid and italy was one of the worst affected countries in the pandemic.

Yeah, but in Italy, people follow rules strictly when compared to India.

Despite low cases, the Government is imposing lockdown

 I did my first semester virtually. It was quite exhausting.

Now the classes are both virtual as well as physical-presence. 

Covid has not impacted education to that extent.

What's your plan after masters ? Are you going to pursue a job ? how are the job aspects here?

Students get Long term Type D permit which allows one to access Schengen countries and with the help of this visa , you can do internships , exchange programs. 

People will become aware of the jobs during study phase. 

There are plenty of job opportunities available

What would be your one piece of advice to the tamil students who want to pursue masters?

Actually I wanted to share two things.

First, if you are planning to roam and waste time, then it's of no use

Many are struggling to get these platforms. 

Better make use of valuable studies and job opportunities.

Secondly, many students are opting consultancies to pursue studies in Italy

The procedure is not that much tedious

You can complete all the process on your own. 

Even then, if you opt consultancy, understand all the processes involved and why they are doing that.

Don’t be blind and land in Italy without any understanding of the bureaucracy and procedures.

I have personally witnessed many students who came via consultancy without scholarship and proper accommodation even after paying 2lacs

Understand the process. 

My personal advice, do on your own, you will definitely get it. 

Thanks for your time .Hope it would be useful to many students

Dec 26, 2020

IS NORWAY ENDING FREE EDUCATION FOR INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS?

I will tell you a fact Norway is the first country to start free education for students.  

They have free education since 1739. They wanted to educate everyone for free.  Namaste from Norway guys, I am Arvind and welcome back to my channel.  Today's video will be very useful for all students.  I will tell you is Norway ending free education for international students.  If you want to know the answer to this question then watch the video till the end.  This is very important information friends.  Before we start on this topic. Let us understand the history of this topic.  Right now the government is a collation government with four parties.  This government is in power since 2013 they won the election twice.  Amongst this government, progress party has proposed this in the parliament.  



They have said that free education for students outside EEA or EU should end.  EEA & EU means countries outside of Europe. Like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, China etc.  They have proposed to stop free education for students from these countries because of many reasons like..  They think it is a big financial burden for the Norwegian government to educate International students for free.  Around 80 million Nok are spent to educate students from outside EEA & EU.  This was the first reason and the second reason is... They say Denmark has already abolished this rule in 2006 of free education.  In Denmark there are no private universities all are public universities.  



After that comes to Sweden. Let me check my notes. Sweden abolished this rule in 2013.  Norway, Sweden & Denmark are Scandinavian countries.  Norway mostly follows the rules of its neighboring countries.  These all countries have friendly relations with each other, unlike our neighboring countries.   This is a political agenda. So let us not discuss this.  One strong reason is that Norway wants to follow the same polices as Sweden & Denmark.  Our leader of education & research committee has said that we should attract smart heads because we offer quality not because we offer cheap education.  So they want to attract only those students to Norway who are smart and want quality education.  This was the whole agenda.  Now another opinion is of the International student union.  



This organization is formed by all the international students in Norway they are known as ISU.  They are opposing this.  They are saying that if you do so then students will not come to Norway.  That is because the same happened in Sweden. Around 73% of the decline was seen after they ended free education in Sweden.  The head of ISU said that already Norway is so expensive then why would it attract any students if free education ends.  Let me give you an example of how much the tuition fee can be.  In Swedish universities, the fee of one semester is 70,000 Nok So for masters, you have four semesters. So 70,000 Nok in INR is around 6 lakh. So in total 24 lakh, INR fee will be introduced.  



Just like ISU, there is one more organization in Norway which is called NSU.  NSU protested against this outside the Norwegian parliament.  This happened when the first draft was proposed in parliament.  NSU says, that there is a Norwegian term "Gratisprinsippet" which means the principle of free education. They say that under this principle you should give free education to the students.  Despite the fact whether that student is from the EU or non-EU everyone is entitled to free education. So if you stop free education you are going against this principle.  NSU is saying that after a few years you might end free education for Norwegian students as well.  This is the main opposition of NSU. This same thing was proposed to the parliament in 2015 and it was rejected.  So this is not happening for the first time in Norway. 



It has been discussed before and it was rejected.  So this is a bit of good news for all.  I am not an expert on this topic but a profession from UIO Peter Massena gave his opinion on this matter and this is what he said.. I read his article online you can read it too. I will attach the link in the description.  So if you ask me I don't think it will be approved but now let us see what did Professor Peter Massena said he gave four points. Two points are in favor and two are against.  He says Norwegian taxpayers are paying for the free education and the students who take this education might not even stay in Norway after completing studies.  so the first point is this that this is not fair.  



Secondly, he said that as Sweden and Denmark have already done it so we should do it too.  Because it is definitely a benefit for the Norwegian government.  These two points were in favor of banning free education now let us see what did he said against it.  He also said it will be against principle of free education. Like we discussed it before. Norway has free education for students since 1739. So Principle of free education is very old and will be very difficult to change it.  He also said people do not understand the Principle of free education very well.  He also said that as Norway is already an expensive country so already students spend around 12-15 lakh INR to stay here.  



And on top of that if you add 24 lakh of tuition fee then it will be 40 lakh INR.  In 40 lakh INR, you can study in any renowned university in the world.  So outside talent which was coming to Norway won't come and you will suffer in some way.  So these were his main four points.  This was the information which I wanted to share with you guys.  In January 2021 it will be discussed again. Then in March or April, it will be discussed with all the parties.  The result will come in May as per the news. Please do not sue me if dates are postponed.  



Incase Norway ends the free education then what will happen let me tell you that too.  In neighboring countries, they offer free scholarships too so the same will happen in Norway.  So it will depend on your grades. I know some people in Finland who got 100% scholarship.  You guys please study hard and get good grades and I wish Norway doesn't end free education for you guys.  If you have more information about this topic then please comment below. 

Dec 21, 2020

New Toyota Highlander 2021 FULL Overview - Specs, Features, Technology, Drive, Interior & Exterior

For the past four years the toyota highlander has been the best-selling retail vehicle in   the extremely competitive mid-size suv segment and this fourth generation raises the bar even further   thanks to its injection of serious style performance and premium features   highlanders lineup includes gasoline and hybrid front-wheel drive and all-wheel drive variations   across six grades with some new configurations including the all-new xse let's learn more   to craft highlanders exterior appearance toyota's designers sought to achieve an organic blend of   power and sophistication with its sculpted styling highlander makes a statement whether it's pulling   up to the restaurant for date night or cruising down the highway with your crew on an epic road   trip this exterior isn't just about looks though with highlander also offering standard   

2021 Toyota Highlander Review - Specs, Features, Technology, Driving Scenes, Interior Design & Exterior Design

Toyota Highlander 2021

Led lighting on all grains including the freshly updated projector style lamps that were previously   only featured on limited and platinum highlanders exterior also sports an available moon roof or in   the case of the platinum grate a power panoramic view moon roof roof rails are also available as   is a hands-free power rear lift gate that enables cargo area access even with hands full of grocery   bags or sports equipment finally the aggressive new xse grade boasts a sporty front bumper   grille and lower spoiler unique 20-inch machined face alloy wheels plenty of black exterior accents   and even a twin tip exhaust a first for the highlander family the fourth generation 



Highlander   has a premium interior that's sure to impress both driver and passenger alike from its driver-focused   interior layout to the dash integrated design of its touchscreen multimedia systems   but highlanders interior goes far beyond its style with its great convenience features including a   standard power driver's seat in-dash storage areas and rear seat reminder there's also available   rain sensing wipers and an available 1500 watt cargo outlet on select hybrid trims highlander   doesn't come up short on comfort offerings either with standard 3-zone automatic climate control   several available features like heated and ventilated front seats heated second row seats and   



Heated steering wheel and even standard leather trimmed seating on limited and platinum grades   plus xsc offers two unique interior choices including a red and black two-tone leather   trimmed interior with red stitching like the exterior highlander's interior benefits from   the tnga platform which helps deliver improved cargo space behind the third row as well as   impressive passenger room in both eight or the available seven passenger seating configuration in terms of in-cabin technology every highlander starts with standard compatibility for apple   carplay which connects drivers to apple music maps messages and other favorite apps from your   iphone in addition android auto makes it easy to stay connected to android devices   while amazon alexa connectivity keeps amazon's digital assistant just a question away   plus there's a three-month 



Siriusxm all-access   trial subscription to more than 300 radio channels accessible throughout the country   highlander offers great convenience features as well including available qi compatible wireless   charging that keeps drivers from fumbling for a cord as well as five standard usb ports for   charging your own hardware and on select models drivers can feel like the dj of their crew with   the available jbl sound system that pumps 1200 watts of power through its 11 premium speakers   this audio multimedia platform simply offers a variety of entertainment choices   whether it's music podcasts audiobooks or catching up on phone calls as well as multiple navigation   options all of which comes together to help make every trip fun and stress-free plus drivers can   enjoy the large 12.3 inch touchscreen display standard on platinum and available unlimited   similarly the convenient and standard smart key system enables drivers to leave the key fob in   their purse or pocket when starting entering or exiting the vehicle highlander 



Also supports   toyota's line of connected services including standard wi-fi connect compatibility on all models   and available remote connect to locate your vehicle lock or unlock the doors   and even start the engine all from your mobile device highlander's emphasis on safety is   clearly evident in its standard toyota safety sense 2.5 plus suite of active safety systems   this updated bundle includes pre-collision system with pedestrian detection now with intersection   support enhancement and a driver initiated emergency steering assist enhancement lane   departure alert with steering assist automatic high beams full speed range dynamic radar cruise   control now with curve speed management lane tracing assist and road sign assist and for added peace of mind toyota safety connect service also comes 



Standard with   roadside assistance an emergency assistance button stolen vehicle locator and in case of an accident   automatic collision notification allowing toyota's 24 7 response center to notify emergency services   with the vehicle's location highlander further rounds out its safety story with standard blind   spot monitor with rear cross traffic alert on all models except l as well as useful features   like available front and rear parking assist and automated braking and an available digital rear   view mirror that shows what's behind the vehicle even when the cargo area is packed with items while highlanders powerful engines ensure that it has no shortage of get up and go its real   performance lies in its incredible efficiency and 



Capability to this end highlanders hybrid   models have rewritten the book on what's possible for this segment thanks to an epa estimated 36   mpg combined on the front wheel drive variants the other key performance story is highlanders   capability and versatility which can be seen in its newly expanded drivetrain offerings   for highlanders fourth generation hybrid models will be offered in front wheel drive perfect for   sunshine state drivers that don't need the added traction of all-wheel drive and would prefer   a lower cost of entry instead of course toyota's hybrid electronic on-demand all-wheel drive system   remains a stable for those who do need extra traction and for gas models a choice between front   wheel and all-wheel drive continues for the latest generation but now there are two all-wheel drive   



Options a mechanical system and a sophisticated dynamic torque vectoring system available on   xse limited and platinum that can distribute engine power to the left and right rear wheels   as needed to enhance traction additionally both of these gas all-wheel drive systems   include standard multi-terrain select meaning that drivers can enjoy environment specific capability   off the pavement whether in a vermont snow storm or on a san diego beach and as icing on the cake   both of these all-wheel drive systems also feature the fuel saving driveline disconnect function to   help drivers get every last mile out of their tanks built on the tnga platform highlanders   chassis strength and suspension design help to enhance vehicle agility while also ensuring   a smooth and quiet ride and for those after 


Sportier steering and more responsive handling   xse suspension system and power steering have been tuned to deliver a more engaging driving feel highlander's value story is set to continue shaking up the segment in a big way   just as it's done since its 2001 debut and that means more than just approachable pricing it also   means ownership perks like the toyota care no cost maintenance plan with roadside assistance   and great coverage like the eight-year 100 000 mile hybrid system warranty   and the 10 year 150 000 mile hybrid battery warranty rounded off with a famous reputation   for quality and long-term value and it's clear that toyota has another home run on its hands 

Dec 20, 2020

Schools in Germany | Education System in Germany

Today I shall be talking  about the education system in Germany 


So, welcome to Tech Daily The whole process from a child attending kinder garden until higher secondary school is what I intend to explain here For easy understanding I shall explain it in 3 sections 1. Kinder garden 2. Primary Level 3. Secondary 



Level Compulsory education starts at age 6 in Germany Until then children attend day care centers like how it is in our hometown In Germany, these are called "Kindertagesstätte" or simply Kita We can divide it into 2 types Kinderkrippe or Nursery  until age of 3 Then comes "kindergarten" or kindergarden attended by children between ages 3 and 7 Kita is not compulsory it is not a part of the public school system 



However, the advantage attending here is in addition to children learning the language they can socialize as well as preparing themselves better for school There are different types of kit as in Germany Fröbel kit as focus on a particular skill which may include arts, music etc. 2. Integrative Kit as where disabled and non-disabled children are trained together 2. 



Bilingual Kit as here, in addition to German language a secondary language is also taught Next question is how to find a kita in Germany ? We are sharing two websites with you to find a kita near your hometown 1. www.kita.de 2. www.kindergarten-vergleich.de/ I shall include it in the description box so that you take a look and find out one nearby. 



We now know to find a kita  there may/may not be enough  kitas around your location The best time to start looking for a kita is at least 1.5 years before your child is old enough to join kita so that you can register a place for your child Next, how expensive is Kita There are private kitas in addition to public ones These are comparatively expensive In case if a place cannot be found in kita or a place with better care is what you are looking for then 



"Tagesmutter" or Childminder is the place The advantage is that they take care of a small group not exceeding 5 children Thereby better care and attention is given In comparison to day care centers these are expensive most Childminders take care  of the children at their homes we drop our child at their home I shall include the link in the description box to find a childminder As I mentioned earlier compulsory education begins from age 6 most schools are public here and therefore 



Education is free  Also there are private schools  as well as international schools  where schools fees are to be paid School curriculum depends up on the state  same curriculum may not be followed by all states There are 16 states, each one defining their own curriculum Classes 1 - 4 are clubbed and are  known as "Grundschoole" or Primary School its until class 6 in Berlin and Brandenburg 



After completing grade 4 based on the marks obtained as well other  co curricular activities, teachers shall suggest in which secondary school may the child attend However, final decision is up to parents teachers shall only give a recommendation There are 4 types of secondary schools 1. Hauptschoole 2. Real schoole 3. Gymnasium 4. Gesamtschoole Pupils scoring below average marks in primary school come to hauptschoole it provides a basic secondary education 


Classes are from grade 5 to 9 After passing grade 9, the student gets "Hauptschulabschluss" or High School Certificate Next is Realschule Classes are from 5 to 10 Student passing 10th grade is awarded with "Mittlere Reife" or secondary school certificate Students scoring best grades in primary school come to Gymnasium  classes are from 5 to 13 There is a qualification exam after grade 13 Upon passing, the student is awarded with "Abitur" It is the highest qualification received by a student among students within the secondary education among German schools Abitur is the entry step to universities in Germany Next is 



Gesamtschule Its curriculum is a mix of the curriculum followed by the other 3 schools Again, classes here are also between 5 and 13 One gets the "Hauptschulabschluss" after passing Grade 9 or "Mittlere Reife" after completing Grade 10 or studies are continued until "Abitur" is obtained One question that may come up is the future of Hauptschule student Either the student can join a vocational course 



The duration is 2-3 years. Together with theoretical classes, practical sessions are held in a company so that upon graduating he/she can start his/her career there If the student wants to pursue higher education he/she can join at a University of Applied Science In case that the student wants to join  a university after grade 9 first join for a special course to pass Grade 10 and obtain Mittlere Reife Afterwards he/she may join  a Gymnasium or Gesamtschule In case of 



Realschule students they can join a vocational course after obtaining "Mittlere Reife" or if they want to pursue higher studies they may join a Gymnasium or Gesamtschule and continue their studies Now I shall tell you the difference between   University and University of Applied Science University focuses more towards research or more focused into Theory University of Applied Science on the other hand focuses more towards skills required by Industries in other words more practical focused Talking about 



German grading system 1.0 best; 6.0 worst  Another common question heard is whether a non German speaking student  can study in a German school such students must attend a special course its known in German as "Willkommensklasse" or "Vorbereitungsklasse" Here they shall learn the language as well as learn the German culture In this video, we wanted to give you an overview of the German Education System as well as an insight into each aspects Hope you all like this video if you did please hit the like button do share it if you find it useful let us know your opinion through comments and consider subscribing my channel if you enjoy So Christmas is here so with a Christmas vlog see you next time take care bye bye! 

Dec 17, 2020

Apple Watch Series 3 42mm Touch Screen Repair - Glass Only Separation

 Today we will share how to refurbish the screen of the Apple Watch Series 3 The tools and supplies needed are: 

Apple Watch


Digitizer, OCA adhesive, adhesive strip, cutting wire, tweezers, pry bar, and razor blade First of all, test the screen The touch, display, and Force Touch function well Turn the watch off Pry the screen open with a Razor Blade slowly Lift the screen Please pay attention to the screen flex cables to avoid damage It can be seen that three flex cables are connected to the motherboard Peel off the tape covering the display flex cables with tweezers Please do not damage the flex cables while peeling off 



Disconnect the flex cables Next, we need to pry up the connector of the touch flex cable Put the screen on the Heating Platform at 120℃ for 30 seconds Peel off the tape with tweezers Pry up the connector Then we use the Cutting Machine to cut the glass We need to cut both sides of the glass to get the cutting wire in 



Please be careful during operation We can see that a side of the glass has been cut off and the bottom has broken too Then we cut the other side Lastly, polish the corners A point well mentioning is that the difficulty of replacement will be reduced if the glass is broken Tape the screen Put the screen on the Heating Platform and start the suction Next, 



Separate the glass with Cutting Wire Pull the Cutting Wire slowly The glass is successfully separated Then we remove the OCA adhesive with Electric Adhesive Removing Tool Clean the OLED with N-hexane Install the OLED to test Since the touch panel has been separated, we only need to test the display function The display function is normal Clean the OLED completely with N-hexane Attach the OCA adhesive to the OLED with Laminating Roller 



Put the OLED into the Bubble Removing Machine for 3 minutes Take the OLED out Put it into the UV Lamp for Curing OCA Glue for 5 seconds Stick a corner of the OLED with Easy Tear Sticker Peel off the OCA protective film Attach the OLED to the Laminating Mold Stick a corner of the digitizer and peel off the OCA protective film Align the digitizer with the OLED Detach the screen Put the screen on the Laminating Sponge Then put the screen into the Laminating Machine Press "LCD Laminate Start" Take the screen out and there are still bubbles on the screen Put the screen back into the Bubble Removing 


Machine for ten minutes The bubbles are gone Put the screen back into the UV Lamp for two minutes Then we connect the screen to test The function of the display and touch is good Lastly, we install the screen on the watch Attach the adhesive strip to the frame Peel off the protective film Connect the screen and turn on the watch The watch is turned on and all functions work well 

Introducing Smart Balance System. Another unique technology from Davinci gliders!

 Next generation of Innovation. SMART BALANCE SYSTEM!


Before developing a new paraglider it’s important for us to determine the goals we wish to accomplish.  The glider must offer unique improvements and new technology.  At Davinci we’re always analyzing the positive and negative attributes of gliders while in flight. 



Over time we’ve identified differences in the flight patterns of professional pilots versus recreational pilots. These differences helped us to create a new improvement which mitigates some disadvantages of other gliders. You’ll see that this innovation is quite natural in how it is incorporated into the paraglider structure. Let’s take a look at the differences discovered by Davinci Gliders! 



This is Rhythm, our EN-A glider. If you look closely at the leading edge you will notice a common phenomenon that gliders experience.   When a pilot induces weight shift through the harness the leading edge will exhibit deformation. Now, shall we check the turning of accuracy landing pilots? The difference is visible. The pilot turns without any deformation of the leading edge.  Once we identified this, we began to research it immediately. We developed prototype gliders and began testing, followed by subsequent improvement.  



Finally, we named it the “ Smart Balance System”. (SBS) By connecting the structure of the lines of the right and left sides to the opposing side,  the glider maintains a good balance.  The smart balance system distributes the weight of one riser to the other. The effectiveness of this idea was amazing. We've found many improvements from thinking outside the box. 



First, launch characteristics have been improved making takeoffs a simple task. The Smart Balance reduces the possibility of the wing inflating to one side during takeoff. The wider effective range of the riser also increases the openness of the leading edge intake cells. This means you can always take off confidently! 



Second, the control of rotations during collapse can be managed more easily. The increased effectiveness of the riser inputs allows the pilot to maintain their heading. Third, the rotation range is limited when utilizing weight shift. If too much weight shift is used, a strong rotational force is generated, however SBS limits this tendency. Fourth, the glider maintains a stable structure at all times which means there is no aerodynamic imbalance or deformation of the leading edge. 



We are going to launch a new glider soon with the SBS, Rhythm2. Shall we listen to the explanation of the test pilot Moonseob Lim. When i move to the left and right, the glider never show the layer It makes a glider  to br very stable. 


Davinci Gliders uses new SBS technology, Smart Nose Plus, and new fabrics introduced in the D-log. We will soon introduce the Smart Balance System with the Rhythm2. Please don’t hesitate to ask any questions. We value your ideas and opinions.  We strive to incorporate feedback from our pilots. Thank you. 

FOR, SINCE or AGO? Prepositions of Time - English Grammar

  All about you need to know: FOR, SINCE or AGO? Prepositions of Time - English Grammar


FOR, SINCE or AGO? Prepositions of Time - English Grammar


Wanna speak real English from your first lesson? Sign up for your free lifetime account atEnglishClass101.com. Hi everybody, my name is Alisha, and today I'm going to talk about the difference between “for” and “since.” I'm also going to talk about how to use “ago,” so let's get started. Okay, the first thing I want to talk about is the word “for.” 


We use the word “for” before a period of time, so before a period of time can mean minutes, it can mean years, it can mean days, seconds, hours; a period of time or a length of time. We use the word “for” before that phrase to talk about the length of time that something happens. So for example, for ten minutes, we use it before ten minutes. For five years, five years as a length of time. 


For a day, a day is also a length of time. For a lifetime, one whole lifetime, a person 's whole lifetime can be a period of time, we use "for" before in this case. There's also "for" an eternity; an eternity, we can use this to mean a very very long time, it's sort of an exaggerated phrase but for an eternity means a very very long time. 


These are all lengths of time and we should use the word "for" before we want to express them. Okay, so let's talk about something a little bit different then, the word "since." "Since" is used before a specific point in the past, we often use since with present perfect tense, maybe you've seen another post that we did about the present perfect tense and how to make present perfect tense sentences. We often use "since" in present perfect tense sentences. "For" is also used in present perfect tense sentences but the two are used a little bit differently. "Since" is used to talk about a specific point in the past, a specific point in the past, maybe, where something happened or something began. 


So, for example, since last night. This shows us that since last night, last night something happened or something started, and it's continuing. So "since" shows us that something has been continuing or the effect has been continuing "since" a point in the past; it began at a point in the past and continues or the effect continues until the present, "since," tells us all this information. Another example, since 2014. So this is the point in time, 2014 is the year at which something changed or an action started, or the effect of an action began. So we can use "since" in this case. Another point in time can be a season, like, winter. Since winter, since summer, since autumn. We can use "since" before a season, we also have points in time in the day, since this morning, since this evening, since last night, was my first example here. 


We can also use morning, this morning, this morning, today, as a point in time. Finally, I have one more example, since last week. So points in time, there are a lot of different points in time but just be careful, length of time uses "for," point in time uses "since, "and "since" shows us that there's some action that's continuing or the effect of some action continues until the present. 


So please be careful. Period of time, point in time; "for" and "since." Okay, so the next point that I want to talk about is "ago." There are a couple of different ways that we can use "ago," and the first one I want to talk about is one we use for past tense statements or past tense situations. So we use "ago" to talk about points in time where actions or changes occurred. So, for example, three years ago I got a new job, or five minutes ago I ate lunch, or, two days ago I saw my friend, or two jobs ago I didn't have much experience. So all of these statements are used to talk about a past tense point in time where something changed or some action occurred, so we use "ago" in this way with the past tense to mark a change or something happening. So there's a second use of "ago" that I want to talk about. 


We can use "ago" with "since" and a time period, this is something we often use in present perfect tense statements, like we talked about here, with "since." What I mean by that, for example, is "since"+ time period + "ago." So for example, since three years ago, or since five minutes ago, or since two months ago. 


So here you'll see we're using a time period, I know I said to use time periods with "for," but this can be kind of a useful pattern because if you use the word since on accident but you want to express a time period instead, you can save yourself by adding "ago" to the end of it. So if you're working on making a sentence, for example, and you're speaking and you accidentally use the word "since," even though you know you want to use a time period, save yourself by attaching "ago" to the end. So since three years ago, something has occurred, something has been continuing. 



So because "since" is here it shows us, like we talked about with "since" here, the action or some effect of that action is continuing from this point in time, so we can use this pattern as well, "since," time period, "ago". Okay, so this is a lot of information, let's try to make a few sentences, I've prepared a few example sentences, so let's take a look. Alright, the first one. 


They've been studying

We've lived here _______ three years. So how do we know which to use? First, we see "we've," we have, we have lived here, this is a present perfect tense sentence, we've lived here plus three years. So I see a time period here, that means I should use "for," because we need to use "for" before periods of time. So, we've lived here for three years is the correct sentence. Good. Okay, let's look at the next one then. They've been studying _______ 2014. 


He left the office five minutes

So here, I see a point in time, a point in time, a specific point in time, and another really good hint is the grammar here, I seethe present perfect progressive or the present perfect continuous tense here, "they've, "meaning they have, plus "been studying," this shows a continuing action. So all of these give me hints about which one I should use. They've been studying since 2014 is the correct answer here. Next one. He left the office five minutes ______. Okay, here we see this is a past tense statement, he left, so "left" is the past tense form of the verb "to leave," so we see here a period of time, five minutes, yes, but after five minutes is our space, meaning we need to use "ago." Five minutes ago. We always use "ago" after the period of time. 


I've been reading this book last week

Okay, next one. I've been reading this book _______ last week. So again, we see this "been reading," this present perfect continuous tense shows us an action has been continuing, this shows a continuing action or a continuing effect. So we know we should use "since." I've been reading this book since last week. So, last week, as we talked about here, is our specific point in time. Let's take a look at the next example sentence, it's a little bit tricky, it's a little bit difficult. 



Here, we see the same "been waiting," the same present perfect continuous or present perfect progressive tense, this shows us that an action has been continuing, yes, but I've used the word "ages" here, so "ages" is sort of a casual expression which means a very long time, that means it's a time period, this is not a specific point in time; ages is not a specific point in time, it's actually a time period. So we should use "for" here. You've been waiting here for ages, for a longtime, is what this sentence means. Okay, last one. 


About two weeks

They've been dating ______ about two weeks ______. Okay, so here there are two spaces where we can use a word, that should probably give you a good hint, it'll be this "since" and "ago," but let's talk about why. Here, again, we have this continuous form, they've been dating, "dating" as the continuous or the progressive form of the verb "to date." So we have "about" plus "two weeks," so there's a period of time there, yeah? In this case then, we should use since about two weeks ago. 



So two weeks ago they started dating, or they' we been dating since about two weeks ago, we can use both of these sentences to express the amount of time they have been dating. Okay, so those are a few points about when to use “for,” “since,” and “ago.” We also talked about some grammar points that you can use these words with. If you have any questions about those, checkout some of the other videos we've made on this channel, especially about the present perfect tense. They can help give you some more background about those grammar points.